Saturday, January 20, 2018
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Glaucoma "The Silent thief of sight"

Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your eyes' optic nerve and gets worse over time. It's usually associated with build-up of pressure (intra ocular pressure) inside the eye. It may be inherited.


Intraocular pressure can damage the optic nerve which transmits images to the brain. If damage of the optic nerve from high pressure continues, Glaucoma will cause permanent loss of vision. Without treatment, Glaucoma can cause total permanent blindness within a few years.


It is important to see your eye doctor regularly, because Glaucoma have no early signs or symptoms. If you have a family history of Glaucoma, you should have a complete eye check every 1-2 years. Glaucoma can be diagnosed and treated before long term visual loss occurs.

Two types of glycoma

Open angles-: 90% of all Glaucoma cases in the US. Chronic Glaucoma - Painless, develops slowly over time, usually no symptoms until the disease has progressed significantly. Treatment is either with medication or pressure recusing Glaucoma surgeries.

Closed angle- : Less than 10% of Glaucoma cases in the US. Sudden ocular pain, redness, nausea and vomiting and other symptoms occurring from sudden spike in intraocular pressure and it is treated as an ocular emergency.

Signs and symptoms

Open-angle Glaucoma: The only sign is gradual progressive visual field loss.

Closed-angle Glaucoma: Sudden ocular pain, seeing halos around lights, red eye, very high intraocular pressure, nausea, vomiting, sudden decreased vision, fixed mild dilated pupil.


  • Ocular hypertension
  • Caffeine increases intraocular pressure in those with Glaucoma (doesn't appear to affect normal individuals)
  • No clear evidence that vitamin deficiencies causes glaucoma in humans (oral vitamin supplementation is not a recommended treatment for Glaucoma)
  • Woman are three times more likely than men to develop Acute-angle closure Glaucoma due to their shallower anterior chambers.
  • Positive family history is a risk for Glaucoma
  • Prolonged use of steroids
  • Conditions that severely restrict blood flow to the eye such as diabetic retinopathy
  • Ocular trauma


Screening by an optometrist or ophthalmologist


The goals of Glaucoma management are to avoid glaucomatous damage and nerve damage and to preserve visual field and total quality of life with minimal side effects.

This requires appropriate diagnostic techniques and follow up examinations and appropriate selection of treatment.

Glaucoma patients are of greater risk of falls due to the important role of the visual system in balance and maintaining posture.


Intraocular pressure can be lowered with medication, usually eye drops.

Several different classes of medications are used to treat Glaucoma with several different medications in each class.


Both laser and conventional surgeries are performed to treat Glaucoma. Surgery is the primary therapy for individuals with congenital Glaucoma.

These operations usually are temporary solutions, there is not yet a cure for Glaucoma.

  • Canaloplasty
  • Laser surgery
  • Trabeculectomy
  • Glaucoma drainage implants
  • Veterinary implant
  • Laser-assisted non-penetrating deep sclerectomy
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